Why are variables protected?

If you put protected on something, that means that a class can inherit it. … Putting protected on a member variable breaks encapsulation because now a derived class has access to the implementation details of the base class. It’s the same problem that occurs when you make a variable public on an ordinary class.

When should variables be protected?

If you don’t want any leaking of internal state, then declaring all your member variables private is the way to go. If you don’t really care that subclasses can access internal state, then protected is good enough.

What does it mean when a variable is protected?

Public variables, are variables that are visible to all classes. Private variables, are variables that are visible only to the class to which they belong. Protected variables, are variables that are visible only to the class to which they belong, and any subclasses.

Why do we use protected?

So if we want data members to be accessible to only derived classes and not privately or publicly accessible, then we can use protected. – Protected is similar to private. – It makes class member inaccessible outside the class, but the members can be accessed by any subclass of that class.

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Why should variables be private?

Making a variable private “protects” its value when the code runs. At this level, we are not concerned with protecting it from other programmers changing the code itself. The point of so-called “data hiding” is to keep internal data hidden from other classes which use the class.

Why is protected bad in Java?

Putting protected on a member variable breaks encapsulation because now a derived class has access to the implementation details of the base class. It’s the same problem that occurs when you make a variable public on an ordinary class.

What is protected vs private?

private: The type or member can be accessed only by code in the same class or struct . protected: The type or member can be accessed only by code in the same class , or in a class that is derived from that class .

What is protected keyword?

Protected keywords are keywords that are used to restrict the scope within which the variable, method, and constructors can be accessed. It is one of the types of access modifiers in Java. They are used to differentiate between the scope of methods, variables, constructors, and classes.

What is protected method?

A protected method is like a private method in that it can only be invoked from within the implementation of a class or its subclasses. It differs from a private method in that it may be explicitly invoked on any instance of the class, and it is not restricted to implicit invocation on self .

What does protected class mean in Java?

Basically, the protected keyword is an access modifier for method and variable of a class. When a method or a variable is marked as protected, it can be accessed from: … Other classes in the same package as the enclosing class. Sub classes, regardless of packages.

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Why we use protected private and public access specifiers?

C++ access specifiers are used for determining or setting the boundary for the availability of class members (data members and member functions) beyond that class. For example, the class members are grouped into sections, private protected and public .

What is protected class?

A protected class is a group of people sharing a common trait who are legally protected from being discriminated against on the basis of that trait. Examples of protected traits include race, gender, age, disability, and veteran status.

Why do we use protected visibility specifier to a class member?

Protected variables allow access to the variables only from sub-classes and classes within the same package. Protected variables can be useful if you want your data to be read-only, or when you want to abstract your data.

What is one advantage of data encapsulation with respect to methods?

The main advantage of using encapsulation is the security of the data. Benefits of encapsulation include: Encapsulation protects an object from unwanted access by clients. Encapsulation allows access to a level without revealing the complex details below that level.

What is the difference between protected and private in Java?

The private modifier specifies that the member can only be accessed in its own class. The protected modifier specifies that the member can only be accessed within its own package (as with package-private) and, in addition, by a subclass of its class in another package.

Can a private variable be accessed from a subclass?

A subclass does not inherit the private members of its parent class. However, if the superclass has public or protected methods for accessing its private fields, these can also be used by the subclass.

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